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TMS Electro-Diagnostic Markers

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique which when used in combination with electroencephalography (EEG) or electromyography (EMG) enables the assessment of human brain excitability in health and in disease.

The team at The Science Behind provide an innovative service, developed by Dr Isabella Premoli*, using this technique for those pharmaceutical organisations looking to evaluate

i) in-vivo markers for pharmacological activity and therapeutic outcomes and

ii) in-vivo markers for specific biological processes such as GABAergic inhibition and voltage-gated channel ligand activity.

Used in early-stage and first-in-human clinical trials we can obtain pharmacodynamic EDM for biological target engagement while minimising exposing subjects to high and toxic doses and support access to new therapeutics into further clinical trials.



TMS-EDM is a reliable, reproducible, non-invasive and comparatively cost-effective way of identifying cortical and corticospinal excitability markers and showing specific neurophysiological correlates and neural inhibition/excitation.

TMS-EDM can be applied in the context of several neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions including epilepsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Motor Neuron Disease), Parkinson’s Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, autism and schizophrenia).

Download our TMS-EDM Primer for more on this technique.

Download Research Paper “Clinical utility and prospective of TMS–EEG_Tremblay et al 2019”  published in Clinical Neurophysiology for a more detailed and granular explanation of the technique and it’s applications.

*Download Dr Isabella Premoli’s research paper

Premoli et al, 2019 ‘TMS as a pharmacodynamic indicator of the cortical activity of a novel anti-epileptic drug, XEN1101’


Contact us to discuss a clinical trial or research study.


The Science Behind can help Sponsors and CROs with some of these challenges in Phase 1 trials by providing the tools and specialist expertise to answer key questions in relation to safety and efficacy when bringing novel drug candidates to human clinical trials.

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation - Electro Diagnostic Markers
Electroencephalography & Electromyography